The sounds a mom exposes herself to are what a baby is exposed to as well, but babies can't put in ear plugs.
Although a baby's eyes can "see" light starting around week 16, their peepers aren't fully formed until about week The eyes first open between weeks 26 and Morning sickness is no fun, but a popular scientific explanation for all those waves of disgust, nausea, and vomiting suggests that it helps protect a woman's fetus during her first trimester or first 12 weeks. This "disease-threat" model goes something like this: Anything that looks or smells or feels or tastes funny is more likely to gross out a pregnant woman, thus protecting her developing baby from toxic and potentially infectious things while her immune system is partially weakened.
A study in took that idea a step further, asking if pregnant women are more likely to instinctively avoid foreigners, strangers, and other "outgroups. Babies start to pee inside the amniotic sac around week eight, though urine production really picks up between weeks 13 and 16 when kidney development is more complete.
By week 20 most of the amniotic fluid is urine. Flavor molecules from food that a mom eats pass from her blood, through the placenta, and into a baby's amniotic fluid. And since taste buds start to develop around week 11 right as the mouth opens up , a baby can taste whatever mom eats from then on — though a sense of taste is stronger around weeks 28 and 29, when taste buds are fully mature.
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The relationship continues after birth, too, since flavor molecules regularly show up in breast milk. One study even showed moms who consistently ate a lot of anise during pregnancy eventually gave birth to babies who preferred anise-flavored milk. Called meconium, a baby's first stool is made of all the skin, hair, bile, proteins, white blood cells, and other stuff that floats in the amniotic fluid — because a baby drinks it all for 20 to 25 weeks. Meconium starts forming as soon as a baby opens its mouth and begins swallowing amniotic fluid, around week 11, but meconium production really picks up by week 19 or 20 as a fetus matures.
Or at least this was the case for my baby; other colors like white can indicate a serious medical condition. Sources: Columbia University , HealthyChildren. The layer between a baby's placenta and mom's uterine wall is so thin to allow nutrients to easily pass from mom's blood into a baby's blood without ever touching.
The risk has to do with blood, and it starts with a genetically inherited factor called Rhesus, or Rh factor. When this protein shows up on the surface of blood cells, that person is Rh-positive. Meanwhile, Rh-negative people don't have it. If a dad is Rh-positive and a mom is Rh-negative, future pregnancies can be tougher to keep — if mom's Rh-negative blood ever mixes with her Rh-positive baby's blood.
While usually not a problem during the first pregnancy, mom's and baby's blood can mix during the disarray of birth, causing mom to develop "Rh sensitization" — when she makes antibodies that may attack future Rh-positive babies, causing miscarriages.
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About 2. Luckily, a shot of Rh immunoglobulin between week 28 and up to 72 hours after a mom's first birth can prevent the problem altogether. Episodes of traumatic stress experienced by a pregnant mom can have surprising effects on her baby. Kids born to parents with post-traumatic stress disorder PTSD , for example, are more likely to develop PTSD in their own lifetimes — despite not being exposed to more traumatic events than others.
Medical terms and definitions during pregnancy and birth
Researchers accidentally made the discovery while studying mothers who used cigarettes or cocaine. After playing a sound on the pregnant mothers' bellies, ultrasound videos showed the babies startling, opening their mouths, and gasping. World globe An icon of the world globe, indicating different international options. The use of combined spinal-epidurals or a walking epidural has gained popularity in recent years.
This involves passing a very small pencil-point needle through the epidural needle prior to placement of the epidural anesthetic. The smaller needle is advanced into the space near the spinal cord and a small dose of either a narcotic or local anesthetic is injected into the space.
This affects only sensory function, which enables you to walk and move about during labor. This technique is normally used during the early stages of labor. There are many options for women seeking a nonmedical pain relief for labor and delivery. They focus on reducing the perception of pain without the use of medication. Some of these include:. Labor can be artificially induced in several ways. The method chosen will depend on several factors, including:. Induction of labor is usually not recommended when a woman has had a previous C-section or if the baby is breech bottom down.
Stripping the membranes may induce labor for some women. This is a procedure in which your doctor checks your cervix. They will manually insert a finger between the membranes of the amniotic sac and the wall of the uterus. Natural prostaglandins are released by separating or stripping the lower part of the membranes from the uterine wall.
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This may soften the cervix and cause contractions. Stripping the membranes can only be accomplished if the cervix has dilated enough to allow your doctor to insert their finger and perform the procedure. Medications like oxytocin or misoprostol can be used to induce labor. Oxytocin is given intravenously. Misoprostol is a tablet placed in the vagina. Most babies turn into a head-down position between the week 32 and week Most doctors will try to turn a breech fetus into a head-down position using external cephalic version ECV.
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The baby will be monitored during the procedure. ECVs are often successful and can reduce the likelihood for a C-section delivery. The national average of births by cesarean section has gone up dramatically over the last few decades.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , about 32 percent of mothers in the United States give birth by this method, also known as a cesarean delivery. A C-section is often the safest and quickest delivery option in difficult deliveries or when complications occur. A C-section is considered a major surgery. The baby is delivered through an incision in the abdominal wall and uterus rather than the vagina. The mother will be given an anesthetic before surgery to numb the area from the abdomen to below the waist.
The incision is almost always horizontal, along the lower portion of the abdominal wall. In some situations, the incision may be vertical from the midline to below the belly button. The incision in the uterus is also horizontal, except in certain complicated cases. Share this article Share.
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